Islam - Chronology
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Golden Age of Islam

The Golden Age of Islam refers to a period in history marked by significant advancements in various fields under Islamic rule. This period roughly spanned from the 8th to the 14th century, with the exact timelines varying depending on the historian's perspective.

This period saw significant developments in Islamic thought as the Islamic world continued to experience change and new influences. Two major trends of modernism and tradition continued to emerge during this period.

Modernist thinkers further sought to reconcile traditional Islamic teachings with rational philosophy and modern sciences being introduced during this era. Prominent modernists included Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1155-1191) from Persia who founded the Illuminationist school of Islamic philosophy that blended Islamic mysticism with ancient Greek philosophy. Another was Muhammad ibn Toufail (1201-1285) from Islamic Spain who authored one of the earliest philosophical novels "Hayy ibn Yaqdhan" promoting reason and naturalism.

Traditionalists continued defending orthodoxy and opposing outside influences. Notable orthodox theologians were Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149-1209) from Persia who wrote detailed commentaries defending Sunni doctrines and Ibn Taymiyyah (1263-1328) from Syria who opposed philosophical influences and advocated for strict adherence to scriptural sources. Sufism also remained influential through Masters like Shams Tabrizi (1185-1248) who influenced Rumi, and Ahmad al-Rifa'i (1019-1182) whose order spread widely in regions like Egypt and Arabia.

Modernist reforms were proposed by scholars like Shah Wali Allah from India while traditionalist defenses of orthodoxy emerged through figures like Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Ahmad ibn Idris al-Fasi. Sufism continued to be practiced through influential orders during this later period as well.

Ibn Taymiyya

Ibn Taymiyya, a prominent 13th-century Islamic scholar, has become a contentious figure in discussions of Islamic extremism. His rigorous emphasis on the Quran and Sunnah as primary Islamic sources and his advocacy for a return to the early practices of Islam have been influential in various Islamic reform movements. However, some extremist groups in modern times have selectively used his writings, particularly his views on jihad and takfir, to justify their actions. This has sparked considerable debate among scholars, with many arguing that such groups often misinterpret or take his ideas out of context. It is important to recognize that Ibn Taymiyya's complex legacy reflects broader debates within Islamic scholarship about the interpretation of religious texts and their application in contemporary contexts.

Historical Context: Ibn Taymiyya lived during a tumultuous period marked by the Mongol invasions of the Islamic world. This context significantly influenced his writings and views. He witnessed the fall of Baghdad in 1258 and the challenges faced by the Islamic community under Mongol rule.

Views on Takfir (Declaring Someone an Unbeliever): One of Ibn Taymiyya's contentious positions involved the issue of takfir. He was known for his strict criteria for what constitutes apostasy and disbelief. While he did set forth principles under which a Muslim could be considered an unbeliever, he also emphasized caution in declaring takfir, arguing that it should not be done hastily or without substantial evidence.

Jihad and Defense of Islam: Ibn Taymiyya supported the idea of jihad as a means of defending the Muslim community against external threats. His fatwas (legal opinions) regarding the Mongols, who had nominally converted to Islam but were seen as failing to properly adhere to Islamic law, were particularly significant. He argued that jihad against such rulers was permissible, as he considered them to be hypocrites who undermined Islam.

Islamic Thought from the 15th to the 18th Century

From 1400 to 1800, Islamic intellectual thought experienced a diverse range of developments. This period saw the rise of the Timurid Empire in Central Asia, which contributed to a surge in artistic and intellectual achievements. The Ottoman Empire also reached its peak, bringing a period of synthesis and consolidation in Islamic thought. This era was marked by the patronage of prominent scholars, such as Ebussuud Efendi and Katib Çelebi, who made significant contributions to Islamic jurisprudence and other fields.

During the 16th century, the Safavid Empire in Persia saw a flourishing of arts and culture, and the establishment of the Shia Ithna 'Ashari school of thought. In the 17th century, the Mughal Empire in India became a center of Islamic art, culture, and architecture. Emperor Akbar sought to reconcile religious and philosophical traditions, promulgating the syncretic Dīn-i Ilāhī movement.

Islamic Thought from the 18th Century to the Present

The foundations of Islamic thought have evolved significantly from the 18th century to the present, deeply influenced by theological and philosophical traditions. The 18th century Islamic world set the stage for key developments, beginning with early reforms like Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's Wahhabism in the Arabian Peninsula, which had a profound impact on Sunni Islam.

In the 19th century, figures like Syed Ahmad Khan and Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi in British India responded to colonialism and modernity, leading to the emergence of modernist and traditionalist schools. The early 20th century saw Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Abul Kalam Azad shape Muslim identity in the pre-partition Indian subcontinent, with their intellectual responses to nationalism and independence movements.

Mid-20th century was marked by revivalism with Maulana Maudoodi, Hassan al-Banna, and Sayyid Qutb contributing to political Islam and the concept of Islamic states, showing comparative elements with Wahhabi thought. The Islamic Revolution in Iran, led by figures like Ali Shariati and Ruhollah Khomeini, brought Shia revolutionary thought to prominence.

Towards the late 20th century and into the present, personalities like Azzam, Jahangir, Ahmed, Gülen, Khamenei, and Ramadan have addressed globalization and contemporary challenges, impacting current Islamic thought. This period has been characterized by the influence of foundational ideas from earlier figures like Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Syed Ahmad Khan, Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and others, each contributing uniquely to the evolution of Islamic thought.

British Colonial Period: During the British colonial period, there were movements within India that resonated with Wahhabi ideas, primarily in their opposition to what they saw as corrupt practices within Indian Islam. However, these movements were not directly linked to Wahhabi doctrine but were part of the broader Islamic reform movements in the Indian subcontinent.

The Ahl al-Hadith (People of the Hadith) is an Islamic movement that emphasizes the primacy of the Hadith and Quran in Islamic law and guidance. Emerging in the Indian subcontinent during the 19th century, it advocates for direct engagement with these texts and criticizes the practice of taqlid, or blind adherence to Islamic legal schools. The movement challenges certain Sufi practices and popular Islamic traditions, viewing them as deviations from original Islamic teachings. It arose partly as a response to colonial challenges, contributing to broader Islamic reform movements. Today, Ahl al-Hadith remains influential in South Asian Islam, impacting religious discourse and practices in the region.

Deobandi Movement: The closest Indian parallel to Wahhabism can be seen in the Deobandi movement, which began in the late 19th century. While the Deobandi scholars shared the Wahhabi emphasis on returning to the Quran and Hadith, they differed in various theological and jurisprudential aspects. The Deobandi movement was more a product of the Indian context and addressed local concerns, although it did have some ideological similarities with Wahhabism.

Some Islamic thinkers

Barelvis and Deobandis: A Complex History

Origins and Emphasis:

Key Doctrinal Differences:

Political Involvement:

Zia-ul-Haq's Reign and Islamic Groups



In summary, both Barelvi and Deobandi groups were affected by Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization policies, with Deobandis often finding support and Barelvis experiencing a more mixed response. The involvement in the Afghan Jihad further shaped the dynamics within these groups during this period. It's essential to note that the impact varied, and not all individuals within these movements had uniform perspectives on Zia-ul-Haq's policies.

Reaction to Colonialism in the Islamic World

In the 19th century, the Islamic world faced significant challenges due to European colonialism, prompting a variety of responses. Resistance and rebellion were common, with notable examples like Abd al-Qadir's struggle in Algeria and the Mahdist Revolt in Sudan. Intellectual and religious leaders engaged in a profound re-evaluation of Islamic teachings and practices, leading to movements of reform and modernism. Figures such as Muhammad Abduh and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advocated for educational reform and the reinterpretation of Islamic principles in the context of modern challenges.

Some regions attempted to adopt Western models to strengthen their states against European powers. The Ottoman Empire's Tanzimat reforms and Muhammad Ali Pasha's modernization efforts in Egypt exemplify this trend. Pan-Islamic movements also emerged, promoting Muslim solidarity against colonialism, with influential voices like Jamal al-Din al-Afghani at the forefront. The colonial era also brought significant economic and cultural shifts, integrating Islamic societies into the global economy and exposing them to European cultural and legal norms. These diverse responses to colonialism had a lasting impact, shaping the political and social landscape of the Islamic world well into the 20th century.

The intellectual and religious responses to Western colonialism in the Islamic world during the 19th century were marked by a profound reevaluation of traditional practices and beliefs. Scholars and thinkers like Muhammad Abduh in Egypt and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in India spearheaded movements of reform and modernism, advocating for a reinterpretation of Islamic teachings in light of modern challenges. These reformers emphasized the compatibility of Islam with scientific and intellectual advancements and sought to modernize educational systems. Their efforts represented a significant shift in thought, aiming to rejuvenate Islamic societies and empower them against colonial domination while maintaining religious and cultural identity.

In contrast to the reformist movements, the traditionalist response in the Islamic world to Western colonialism was characterized by a strong emphasis on preserving the orthodox practices and interpretations of Islam. Traditionalists viewed the encroachment of Western ideas and colonial rule as a threat to the purity of Islamic teachings and way of life. They often opposed the adoption of Western-style reforms and secular ideas, advocating instead for a strict adherence to the Quran and Sunnah as well as classical Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). This perspective led to a reaffirmation of traditional religious education and values, and in some cases, it fostered resistance movements against colonial powers and the Westernization of their societies. Traditionalist scholars and leaders became the guardians of Islamic orthodoxy, resisting the cultural and intellectual changes brought about by colonial influence and modernity.

Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, a political activist and Islamic ideologist of the late 19th century, was instrumental in advocating for pan-Islamic unity against Western imperialism. His teachings emphasized the need for adopting Western scientific advancements while preserving Islamic values, influencing Islamic reform movements across various regions.

Muhammad Abduh, an Egyptian scholar and a disciple of al-Afghani, played a vital role in the Islamic modernist movement. As the Grand Mufti of Egypt, he promoted the reinterpretation of Islamic jurisprudence and education, advocating for reforms to counter Western dominance and modernize Muslim societies.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, responding to British colonialism in India, emphasized the importance of Muslims learning Western sciences and English. He founded the Aligarh Muslim University, which became a cornerstone for modern education among Muslims in the Indian subcontinent.

In North Africa, Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri became a symbol of anti-colonial resistance for his military opposition to French colonialism in Algeria. His efforts were not only driven by nationalism but also by his commitment to protecting Islamic traditions and values.

In the early 20th century, figures like Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Turkey played a pivotal role. Atatürk's reforms led to the establishment of a secular Turkish Republic, significantly altering the political and cultural landscape of the region and marking a departure from Ottoman traditions in response to Western influence.

Maulana Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi was a visionary Islamic thinker who significantly influenced the concept of an Islamic state in the modern context. He believed that establishing a state based on Islamic principles and governed by Sharia (Islamic law) was essential for the true practice of Islam. Maududi argued that Islam is not just a personal faith but a complete ideological system that encompasses all aspects of life, including politics, economy, and society. He envisaged an Islamic state where the sovereignty belongs to God, and the Quran and Sunnah are the primary sources of law. In this state, the role of the government would be to implement and enforce Islamic laws and morals, and to guide the society towards living according to Islamic principles. Maududi's ideas were influential in shaping Islamic political movements in various parts of the Muslim world, particularly in South Asia, and continue to impact contemporary discussions about the nature and role of an Islamic state.

In "Quran ki Char Bunyadi Istilahain", Maulana Maududi analyzes four key Quranic terms: Ilah (Deity), Rabb (Lord), Ibadat (Worship), and Din (Religion/Way of Life). He interprets these terms to articulate a comprehensive Islamic worldview, emphasizing a life and governance model aligned with Quranic principles, essential for establishing an Islamic society and state.


Salafism is a movement within Islam that emphasizes a return to the practices and beliefs of the "salaf," the first three generations of Muslims, who are regarded as exemplary models of Islamic practice. The term "salaf" translates to "predecessors" or "ancestors," and refers to the Prophet Muhammad, his companions (Sahabah), and the two subsequent generations (Tabi'un and Tabi' al-Tabi'in). Salafism is characterized by its focus on emulating these early Muslims, advocating for a strict adherence to religious texts and opposing innovations in religious practice.

This movement is known for its puritanical approach, emphasizing scriptural literalism and a straightforward application of Islamic scriptures. Salafists often reject metaphorical interpretations of the Quran and Hadith, advocating for a direct understanding and application of these texts. They also commonly oppose popular religious practices that are not found in the earliest Islamic texts, such as the veneration of saints and certain local customs. Politically, Salafism ranges from quietist approaches, focusing on personal piety and education, to activist stances that involve political engagement and, in a minority of cases, violent jihadism.

Salafism's influence has grown significantly in recent decades, both in the Muslim world and among Muslim communities in the West, aided by the support of Salafist-oriented states. Despite sharing core principles, there is considerable diversity within Salafist thought, with different groups and scholars having varying interpretations of texts and stances on issues like technology use and political involvement. As a distinct and influential movement, Salafism continues to play a significant role in contemporary discussions of Muslim religious and social life.